When Turkey heard this, he shook himself all over.
Bordering on India, China, Afghanistan and Iran, it is strategically located astride the ancient trade routes between Asia and Europe. Geographically, Pakistan can be divided into three regions: The provinces of Punjab and Sindh, in the east and south, are well irrigated by the Indus and its tributaries.
This area, which includes the cities of Karachi, Islamabad the capitalLahore and Rawalpindi, is the most densely-populated in the country. The land consists of a stony plateau, sparsely populated and very dry.
Outside of the provincial capital of Quetta, travel in Baluchistan is extremely restricted. Three great mountain ranges stretch across this part of the country: April through September are the most pleasant months in the mountains, although they bring oppressive heat to the low-lying plains of the Indus Valley, where midday temperatures can exceed 40 degrees Celsius degrees F.
December through February are the coolest months, as lowland temperatures drop to between degrees C degrees F and the air in the mountains falls below freezing. Monsoons reach the southern areas of the country in late summer, although precipitation is minimal in Baluchistan and in the north and limited in most of the interior.
History and People While Pakistan as a country is relatively new, the Indus River region is known as a cradle of civilization. Archaeologists have found fossils of Homo sapiens in the area which date back 50, years. An urban society known as the Indus Civilization developed around 3, BC and flourished for a period of about fifteen hundred years.
One of the reasons for the rise and the prosperity of the Indus Civilization was its situation right along a natural trade route between central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The first of these incursions was that of the Aryans, who arrived from Central Asia around 1, BC, displacing the Indus Civilization and bringing Hinduism to the region.
Twelve hundred years later, the Aryans yielded in turn to the armies of Cyrus the Great, and the Indus region became a part of his Achaemenid Persian empire. The next conqueror to arrive was Alexander the Great, who passed through the Khyber Pass in BC, built a fleet of ships, and sailed down the Indus to conquer what is now the Punjab state.
It was Ashoka who, in an act of remorse for the suffering caused by his many conquests, brought Buddhism to Pakistan and to much of Asia. Kanishka, the greatest of the Kushan kings, ruled from Peshawar over an empire that stretched across much of India. As the Kushan empire declined, various Hindu kingdoms based in India asserted their power, dividing up the territory between them.
Islam was introduced in the 8th century and quickly spread throughout the region. The Turkish rulers of Afghanistan invaded Pakistan as they began their conquest of India. Pakistan then passed under the control of the Muslim sultans of Delhi.
Early in the 16th century, Pakistan became part of the Mughal Empire. Under the emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, art and architecture flourished.
By the early 19th century, the Sikhs had consolidated their power and declared Lahore their capital. Within a few decades, however, the Sikhs were defeated in battle by the English, and Pakistan became part of the British Raj. When India prepared for independence from the British in the s, Muslim Indians pushed for their own independent state, and the republic of Pakistan came into being on August 14, as a Muslim homeland.
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Unfortunately, the birth of both Pakistan and India was marked by massive bloodshed, when violence broke out between Muslims and Hindus migrating from one country to the other. Aboutpeople are believed to have died.
The two largest ethnic groups are the Punjabis, an Indo-Aryan people who dominate political and business life, and the Pashtuns, who work mainly as herders and farmers. The northern areas are home to many distinct ethnic groups, whose eclectic heritage is the result of intermarriage between local peoples and invaders from elsewhere in Europe and Asia.
The official language is Urdu, and English is used extensively in business.Education: e-Newsletter: Discovering the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology Discovering the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology Ask a group of schoolchildren what an archaeologist does, and you are likely to get as many answers as you have students.
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History and People. While Pakistan as a country is relatively new, the Indus River region is known as a cradle of mtb15.comologists have found fossils of Homo sapiens in the area which date back 50, years.
An urban society known as the Indus Civilization developed around 3, BC and flourished for a period of about fifteen hundred years.