A variety of mental-health-care practitioners treat the emotional effects of stress and associated symptoms. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who are specialized in the care of mental illness and can prescribe medications if necessary. Primary-care physicians, including internists and family practitioners, are often consulted by patients suffering from physical symptoms related to stress.
Rochester Institute of Technology This is a review of the psychological field of psychoneuroimmunology PNI and how psychopathology has an impact on the immune system. Two areas of study of PNI are examined: Coping strategies are also looked at where in some cases they have shown abilities in strengthening the immune system.
The understanding of PNI is crucial in understanding the association between immunity, depression, stressors, and psychosocial aspects, along with their interactions with each other and their causal relations. This is a review of a growing new field called psychoneuroimmunology PNIwhich incorporates facets of psychology, immunology, and neurosciences amongst many other fields.
It attempts to understand the interactions between the nervous system, immune system and psyche. This is a rich area of research in which much work has done with many different theories. Specifically, one highly active area of research is where psychologists have been studying the effects that stress and psychopathology have on the immune system.
This research has found correlations between stress, depression and the immune system. The Immune System The immune system is basically an interaction between cells and cellular products.
The white blood cells leukocyteswhich are the main fighter cells of the immune system are made up of three classes; lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. Each type of cell has its own functions. Lymphocytes for instance, are subdivided into B cells, T-helper cells, T-suppressor cells, and natural killer cells.
B cells are generally responsible for the production and secretion of antibodies.
T-cells are responsible for making close and direct contact with the antigen. The other T cells are responsible for regulating the immune system; T-helper cells enhance whereas T-suppressor cells decrease the response. In measuring the immune response, there are two basic ways; quantitatively measuring levels of cells, or second by using a functional measurement.
In quantitative measurements, they are either a measure of the number of cells in a given volume of blood, or a percentage of each type of cell. In a functional measurement, lymphocytes, for example, are exposed to a non-specific antigen mitogen and the results of the exposure are then observed O'Leary, The psychosocial state of a person can have direct impacts on the immune system.
For instance, stress has many different effects on the endocrine systems, including the well known fight or flight activation which is activations of the sympathetic adrenal-medullary SAM system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical HPAC system, and other endocrine systems.
Effects of Stress on the Immune System Internal factors such as stress have been implicated in causing a deficient immune system because of the nature of the body's response in dealing with this problem. The capabilities of the immune system are diminished after frequent activation of the autonomic nervous system in the case of chronic stresses.
The immune system is downgraded to be able to continuously functioning. Perceived mood also seems to play a role in immune system effectiveness. Having a positive attitude seems to correlate with an increased ability of the immune system in fighting diseases.
In cases where patients have exhibited fear before a surgery, they have had a longer healing time afterwards.
Correlations were observed in the number of lymphocyte cells and the person's level of optimism. Cardiovascular diseases are another area where stress could have a negative effect.
The natural response of the fight or flight activation mechanism could have a decidedly negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Since the activation of the fight or flight system involves an increase in the heart rate, a frequent activation could increase the possibility of a heart attack or other negative aspect of the disease.
Specifically, a study was done in an industrial work environment in which a much higher frequency of cardiovascular mortality was found to correlate with an environment in which there was very little reward incentive Kivimaki et al.
Even in relatively less dangerous health problems, mood can have an effect.
A study with the common cold and emotions showed that participants with happy emotions exhibited a greater ability to fight off the cold when given a squirt of the rhinovirus Jones, A study done on students in an academic environment during exam time produced some convincing results.Will Joel Friedman, Ph.D.
is a seasoned clinician with experience working with adults, couples, families, adolescents and older children since His aim Read More Given that stress has been linked as a co-factor in 95% or all disease processes, a keystone of holistic, alternative health and.
An Overview of Stress Management Print By Elizabeth Scott, MS it's important to understand how stress affects your body and learn effective stress management techniques to make stress work for you rather than against you. Learning skills to cope with these stressors can help reduce your experience of .
Often, many relatively mild stressors occurring at once can bring on the same stress as a larger problem or known source of anxiety or worry.
Some people experience chronic and sometimes severe stress from events that occurred in the past and relaxation or stress-management techniques. Eliminating stress at work as an organization isn’t feasible, but that doesn’t mean that your company shouldn’t be invested in stress management.
Peer Commentary. The Role of Stress in Physiological Disorders Andrew P. Ochtinsky Rochester Institute of Technology The basic premise of this paper was that psychosocial environment and psychopathology have measurable effects on the immune system.
Our collection of stress management articles is designed to help you figure these things out and find what works best for you in dealing with the stress in your life.