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Latin-alphabet handwriting To understand the development of modern Western calligraphy it is important to survey historical writing styles—some of which profoundly influenced subsequent work—as well as how the materials of writing have been used.
Most calligraphy is done with pen and ink on paper or parchment, although brushes and chisels are also used for making large letters on various surfaces. Later judgments about how the tip of a pen usually a quill or reed was cut, the angle at which it was held, and the formation of individual letters are conjectures based on the evidence of images of people writing, subsequent calligraphic practices, and the letters themselves.
Very few artifacts and no treatises on the practice of writing are known to have existed before the 15th century, although instructions and descriptions of quill cutting published in the 16th century probably reflect long-standing practices.
Ancient Roman styles Rustic capitals The Latin and vernacular handwriting of western Europe descends in a nearly unbroken line to the present day from the 1st century ad. The script used throughout the Roman Empire for books and occasionally for formal documents is known as rustic capitals.
The pen used to write this script was cut with a broad end and held so that its thickest strokes fell at an oblique, nearly perpendicular angle to the line of writing. As is the case for most formal alphabets, the pen was lifted from the writing surface to make the serifs and other strokes for each single letter.
The rustic alphabet consists only of capital, or majusculeletters, most of which are contained between a single pair of horizontal lines. The letters B, L, and F are sometimes taller than the other capitals to distinguish them from R, I, and E, which are similar in appearance.
Courtesy of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana This elaborate script, whose letter forms were used for inscriptions as well as manuscripts, is called rustic only by comparison with the magnificent square capitals typical of Roman imperial inscriptions.
Both styles existed simultaneously, but very few manuscripts written in square capitals survive from ancient times.
Square capitals, which require many more separate marks to make a single letter, are more often seen on inscriptions cut with a chisel that copied letters designed with a brush. Brushes were also used for large writing such as that seen in the graffiti in Pompeii.
Cursive capitals The business hand of the 1st century, used for correspondence and for most documents, private and official alike, is known as cursive capitals.
Here the pen, cut to a narrow point, was held at an oblique angle similar to that used for rustic capitals, but the pen was lifted less often and the writing was faster. This cursive handling led to new and simpler letter forms such as two strokes for D three strokes and two strokes for E four strokes.
Some of these new forms are in effect minuscule, in that parts of them ascend or descend beyond a pair of lines that define the height of letters such as n or x e. Cursive capitals were also sometimes joined to following letters, further reducing the number of times the pen was lifted during the writing.
This Roman style is hardly considered a calligraphic script, but it demonstrates how a formal alphabet was modified through rapid writing. Cursive capitals, contract for sale of a slave, ad ; in the British Museum, London Pap. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum From the 2nd to the early 4th century, parchment was replacing papyrus as the standard writing material for books, and the codex was replacing the roll as their standard form.
The evidence that survives from this period, during which biblical and other Christian literature was beginning to be copied extensively, is fragmentary, and its interpretation is still controversial.
The main line of development, however, is clear enough. It was probably the use of a straight pen that produced, for example, the conversion of cursive capital axis oblique into the fully minuscule d axis vertical. Uncialshalf uncials, and cursive minuscule For the 4th and 5th centuries, the evidence is more abundant, and it is known that two new book hands and a new business hand came into use.
The older of the book hands, called uncials a name given this style by the 17th-century French paleographer Jean Mabillonwas originally written with a square-edged pen, perhaps cut at an oblique angle; but, from the 6th century onward, a pen without an oblique cut seems to have been used, leading to a rounder-looking letter.
Although they incorporate several cursive letter forms, h and introduce two forms peculiar to this type of alphabet, uncials generally constitute a capital alphabet similar to Greek capitals of the 4th century, such as those seen in the Codex Sinaiticus.
P and F are the only letters that consistently descend below the writing line.
It survived the collapse of the Roman book trade. And, after the 6th century, when the production of all books, pagan as well as Christian, was taken over by the church—notably by the monasteries, such as the Vivarium founded in southern Italy by Cassiodorusa scholar whose aim was to perpetuate Roman cultureand the houses that observed the Rule of St.
Benedict—uncial script survived in many centres, especially for biblical and liturgical texts, down to the 9th century. Thereafter, like rustic capitals, uncials were used only for titles, and they, too, disappeared in the 12th century.
The younger of the two new book hands is called half uncial. This script was less popular than uncials and never broke their monopoly on biblical and liturgical texts, although, like uncial script, half uncial was still being written in the 8th century and even, as a display script, in the 9th century.
Half uncial differs from early uncial script in its minuscule appearance; only one letter N remained more or less unchanged from the capital form. The distinguishing letter forms in half uncial are a, b, d, g, h, l, m, r, and s. There was no attempt to confine letters between a single pair of lines, as they had gained distinctive ascenders and descenders.
Courtesy of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan The new business hand of the 4th century and after is known as cursive minuscule. Like cursive capitals, it was written with a pointed pen, but the pen was held more or less straight.Cross Cultural Poetics.
hosted by Leonard Schwartz. Image credit: Carlos David. Cross Cultural Poetics is produced in the studios of KAOS-FM at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. SCRIPTS AND MATERIALS General Survey.
From the end of the third millennium B.C.E., the art of writing was practiced in the ancient Near East (see *Alphabet).Here, the pictographic, cuneiform, and hieroglyphic scripts were invented and developed.
Teaching children how to join cursive and continuous cursive letters of the alphabet when handwriting, using practice worksheets and animations. How to Join Letters of the Alphabet.
have to be extended but curved up and over to what would be the normal start point of . Calligraphy - Latin-alphabet handwriting: To understand the development of modern Western calligraphy it is important to survey historical writing styles—some of which profoundly influenced subsequent work—as well as how the materials of writing have been used.
Most calligraphy is done with pen and ink on paper or parchment, although brushes and chisels are also used for making large.
Epic Pediatrics provides the foundations, tools, strategies and resources that you need to create your Pediatric and Family Practice on your terms. Gothic 'littera textualis quadrata' The particular style of Gothic alphabet I’ve laid out here is a formal hand that would have been used for copying the main text (ie not translations or footnotes) of high-quality books in Latin between and