References to unpublished data, papers in press, abstracts, theses, and other secondary materials should not clutter up the References or Literature Cited section i. If such a reference seems absolutely necessary, one may add it parenthetically, or as a footnote in the text. I do not necessarily agree with this since, I have seen theses at least being cited in the Bibliography, not to mention URL's to websites where information is more transient.
Bibliography Definition The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration.
The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction.
Importance of a Good Discussion The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described, and Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information.
San Francisco Edit, Structure and Writing Style These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: Do not be verbose or repetitive Be concise and make your points clearly Avoid using jargon Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding] Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes II.
The Content The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem. References to previous research: This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of research used to provide context and background information.
Note that you can make this decision to highlight specific studies after you have begun writing the discussion section. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices.
This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid.
Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate].
Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in your introduction.
Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction.
Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix].
Regardless of where it's mentioned a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of any unanticipated findings, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study.
If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data.
As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings.
Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses if you do not plan to do so in the conclusion of the paper. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings.
Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical [e. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of significance. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem.
This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data.
Overall Objectives The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph.
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding.
Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research.
The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic.
Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur.Citation Generator. A perfectly written paper should be without errors in grammar, structure, order of thoughts, formatting, etc.
While paying enough attention to the content of your work, you shouldn't underestimate its form. throughout the citations are not paper done correctly This paper This paper briefly Some of the topics Very few topics are The paper has a The structure of This assignment This paper lacks strong thesis the paper is has a lack structure, use of Paper Structure statement, presented, organization and vocabulary, and.
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American Psychological Association format is the style most often used when writing papers for the social sciences. When citing a thesis in APA format, include a reference section entry at the end of your paper.
2) How should I cite a dissertation or thesis published by ProQuest/UMI?
Follow the format specified in the most recent edition of the style manual you choose; and – if it is not already required by that style – include the ProQuest/UMI publication number in the References citation. A senior thesis is a large, independent research project that students take on during their senior year of high school or college to fulfill their graduation requirement.
It is the culminating work of their studies at a particular institution, and it represents their ability to conduct research and write effectively.